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Op-Ed

‘Yahoo boy’: Fraudster or hustler4 minutes read

There is now a heroic sentiment attached to it; A ‘robin hood’ factor that romanticizes the scam.

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It’s all the rage on Twitter. A debate that keeps resurfacing on Nigerian twitter. Is ‘yahoo yahoo’ fraud or hustle?

It takes many turns this discussion. Some blame the economy; others blame the degree of unemployment in the country. There is now a heroic sentiment attached to it. A ‘robin hood’ factor that romanticizes the scam; taking from the ‘masters’ and giving to the poor and subjugated. The difference though is that the yahoo boys rarely give back to society. They spend lavishly and waste these amounts of money that come easily through scams. They do give freely to friends and loved ones who name them generous.

In twitter debates, some like popular Nigerian musician Davido, have argued that this version of internet scam is a well deserving payback for years of slavery.

There are various definitions of hustle, the accuracy of these variations can be argued in context. Websters Dictionary defines hustle as: “to sell something to or obtain something from (someone) by energetic and especially underhanded activity” or “to sell or promote energetically and aggressively hustling a new product”.

On the streets of Lagos, the word hustle has taken on a new meaning and culture which is “the struggle to make ends meet by trying as many avenues as possible”; not all through dubious means.

What is ‘yahoo yahoo’?

This is a more internet driven version of fraud. It may require some identity theft or fake phone numbers and bank details, but it is mostly internet based and often referred to as the “short con”. The reason is simple, this variation of internet fraud brings in a smaller score mostly targeting lonely individuals looking for companionship, do-gooders looking to give back, or the vulnerable looking to connect with someone on the internet. Today, most yahoo scams have graduated to military pensions and entitlement theft with separate scams running concurrently by the same fraudster.

This is quite a difference from the “long con” which often involves a face to face, knowledge of the business targeted with very large sums of money and trade. These businesses could range from fake oil deals to digital bank robberies.

By Nigerian law, yahoo boys are offenders under the 419 code. A section of the Nigerian criminal code dealing with advanced fee fraud, charges and penalties.

Who is a yahoo boy?

He is never alone. He is a smooth talker but he needs other ‘partners’ to authenticate a  successful scam which involves the smooth talker the tech person, the document forger, the international call router, the bank connection who is most often a the bank account front and the national security operative who gets a cut after a successful operation in exchange for cover from apprehension.

With unemployment in Nigeria at roundly 60% of the total population and 80% of the youth population which interprets as 22.64 million people between 18-35 who are either unemployed or underemployed.

This degree of poverty and idleness in a generation with many dependents and increasingly corrupt elites crates an impatience to survive with no regard to moral or ethical values. So, take from those whom you think have more than they need and fix your problems. Possibly, the need to engage in internet fraud is desperate poverty but it gradually becomes greed and wastefulness. Impunity drives the need.

Unfortunately, those targeted, whether foreigners or locals are just working class robbed of their hard earn savings and retirements. There is no point to the robin hood myth if the poorer rob the poor. The huge gulf between the poor and the rich totally erodes the middle class leaving only the haves and the have-nots.

There is no ethical reason for the Yahoo boy or his dependents to feel guilty about this as the elite who are mostly in positions of governance are blatantly living in opulence while the masses they lead are in dire straits.  Hence the misplaced justification and reasoning that, after all, if wealth is shared evenly and equally poverty will not exist.

Yet, even if we go by the dictionary definition of hustle which is: “to sell something to or obtain something from (someone) by energetic and especially underhanded activity”…Yahoo yahoo whether hustle or fraud remains a scandalous means of living.

The views expressed in this piece are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect News Central’s editorial stance.

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Flooding can happen anywhere

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Over the past few years, mother nature has changed its ways, because we changed ours. Homes and businesses have been affected by a combination of factors like increased rainfall and the resulting overflow from rivers, especially in coastal areas.

Even for those residents in flood-susceptible areas or riverine communities, marshy lowlands, the method and character of angry cloudburst during a flood, is problematic and fraught with imponderables that are difficult to predict.

At least 25,000 people have died annually since the 80s in Africa from flood with 11 million more affected.

Last year, floods in East Africa provoked massive flooding, landslides, and overflow of several dams across Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia and Uganda. In recent times, Tanzania has spent over US$2 billion annually to manage flood. Landslides from flood took tolls in West Pokot, Kenya where 54 people died.

In Cunene Province of South Angola, Heavy rains submerged homes and damaged properties worth billions.

Mozambique lost assets and properties to 2013 floods estimated to cost over a tenth of its GDP to the tune of US$500m.

Nigeria experienced one of its worst floods in a century in 2012 – properties worth about US$10 billion were destroyed. Borno State in North-Eastern Nigeria had its worst flood in 7 years displacing over 20,000 people.

In 2019, flash floods happened in Tunisia and Algeria as well.

How ready is your community?

Homes may flood from prolonged rain over a long period of time. Internal issues like sewage leak, plumbing failure or extreme weather conditions, water-control structures like dams or levees may fall apart with devastating consequences.

Communities must pursue building approaches to withstand flood and erect structures above flood levels. In building homes and facilities, barriers should be created to prevent the ingress of floodwater into homes with high points using hard-wearing bricks or concrete or sandbags.

Encouraging tree planting across wetlands could create a wooded bulwark to break the speed of floods, check river overflow and arrest deforestation.

Farming or agrarian communities prone to flood may, with the assistance of local authorities, build flood storage reservoirs to hold back floodwater, collect excess rain and runoffs. Such reservoirs may be channelled to farms for irrigation purposes.

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Op-Ed

The role of Diaspora Nigerians in national economic development

In the USA, Nigerians are the most educated ethnic group with the highest percentage of Bachelors’ degree holders

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The role of Diaspora Nigerians in national economic development

Emigration or immigration is what happens from time to time. This is when a person decides to leave their country to live permanently in another country for reasons that are not far-fetched. Some could be for economic reasons, wanting a better life or simply running away from conflicts which can be outright war or religious.

It is a fact that millions of Nigerians emigrate to other parts of the world. These migrants and their descendants make up the Nigerian Diaspora. This population range between 5 million and 15 million according to figures from official quarters.

Nigerians can be found in the United Kingdom with Peckham referred to as little Lagos, the USA, Ireland, especially in Dublin, South Africa, India, Malaysia etc. It is even a serious joke that there’s hardly any place on the planet you cannot find a Nigerian and till now I see that as a problem.

These migrants, as observed, are at a high cost to the development of Nigeria, especially when it borders on professionals like doctors, scientists, lecturers which the country is in dire need of. Unfortunately, some of Nigeria’s brightest professionals constitute the class of people leaving the country on a daily basis for other countries that provide better facilities and services for their people.

In the USA, Nigerians are the most educated ethnic group with the highest percentage of Bachelors’ degree holders and have an average honourable income of $94,000 (2010 US census). We cannot also ignore the fact that Nigerians in the Diaspora also contribute largely to the economy with $12bn remitted by them in 2012 (World Bank), which is positive to our economy.

There is, therefore, a need to put in place structures and policies that will encourage some of those that have emigrated to return and use their acquired expertise to help in the development of the country.

But to have those in the Diaspora come back, especially the professionals, facilities must be provided in our hospitals, universities, government institutions and we must also apply meritocracy in appointments. Aside from that, there should be improvement in the remuneration of specialised functions while we beef up security nationwide.

The Nigerian in Diaspora Organisation is a body recognised by the Federal Government as an umbrella body of Nigerian citizens in the Diaspora with a vision to harness the skills and expertise of Nigerians with the view to providing them for the development of the country.

The Nigerian government has to take advantage of this body in making some appointments in government agencies and institutions. The appointment of Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, a former Director of the World Bank, is one that easily comes to mind. Her impact as Minister of Finance and coordinating minister of the economy under the Jonathan administration cannot be underestimated. The structures she put in place to check “ghost” workers as well as the Treasury Single Account have, in no small measure, minimised corruption.

Also, the impact of Dr. Akin Adesina, a former agricultural economist at the Rockefeller Foundation, who became the Minister of Agriculture, was also positive, as he returned to use his expertise to develop the country.

Another well-known case is the success of Singapore linked to Lee Kuan Yew. Lee studied Law in Fitzwilliam College in Cambridge, UK. In 1950, he was admitted to the English Bar but instead of practising there, he returned to Singapore and became the first Prime Minister from 1959 to 1990. He transformed Singapore from one of the poorest countries in the world in the 60’s to one of the most advanced today. He built a country based on the rule of law with an efficient government structure and continuously fights against corruption and insecurity.

Unfortunately, we cannot say this of Nigeria, reasons being the structures, policies, establishments are not in place to attract and facilitate integration.

We can identify Nigerians and award scholarships to them in specific institutions with the clause of returning home to help in the country development in various fields. However, the government on the other part must ensure adequate facilities are in place for their return.

The ease of doing business has significantly improved and there is a need to legalise the whistle-blower policy as part of our anti-corruption drive.

Competence and honesty must be introduced in making appointments to critical government positions. All these will ensure we appoint the best Nigerians both home and abroad, leading to good governance and increased investors’ confidence in our economy.

We have no other country but Nigeria; we have the human and abundant natural resources to make the country an economic power. But we must enthrone meritocracy and honesty as our way of life and shun ethnicity and religious animosity. The journey has just begun and we must all join hands in making this country great, again.

The views expressed in this piece are the author’s own and do not reflect News Central’s editorial stance.

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Op-Ed

Period poverty: The fault in our blood

In Kenya alone, almost 50 per cent of school-going girls do not have access to sanitary products

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Period poverty: The fault in our blood
Photo credit: youthsdigest.com

A family of 8 has just been admitted in Mafalala health centre, Mozambique. They all woke up to what seemed like food poisoning. It was not merely food poisoning. It was the eldest daughter, who inadvertently introduced microbes and bacterial toxins into the food due to poor hygiene – poor hygiene from period poverty.

In a nutshell, ‘Period poverty’ refers to lacking access to sanitary products, menstrual hygiene education, decent toilets, hand washing facilities, and, or, waste management due to financial constraints.

While many may be lucky enough to probably take this for granted, one in ten girls miss school because they don’t have access to sanitary products. Some stay away because there aren’t safe, private toilets to use at school.

In Kenya alone, almost 50 per cent of school-going girls do not have access to sanitary products.

WHO states that, each year, 600 million people (1 out of 10 persons around the world) become ill after consuming contaminated food. Among all these people, 420,000 die, including 125,000 children under the age of 5.

Women and girls’ health may be put at risk, as they are forced to use dirty rags which can cause infection. Risks can be greater if the women or girl has undergone female genital mutilation.

READ: Somalia marks 16 Days of activism against gender-based violence

In Maradi, Zinder and other parts of Niger Republic, study carried out for menstruating women and girls between 15 and 45 show that they observe nutritional and religious restrictions.

With men and boys less concerned about the management of menstruation among women, there is low awareness on menstrual health management which is more prevalent among nomadic women (96%) compared to sedentary women (49%).

There are many other health risks linked with the current practices of many girls during their menstrual cycles, especially in the rural or poor neighbourhoods.

Most times, girls are unaware of the availability of sanitary pads. They often resort to using pieces of mattress, chicken feathers, dry leaves, and newspapers to meet their needs and to attend school during their periods. The outcome is mostly offensive, repulsive and discomforting to the girls yet fertile for disease-causing organisms.

Some girls would employ plastic bowls because conveniences are far-flung from their residences; some dig holes at home and sit on them intermittently for the period of their menstruation!

UNICEF’s investigation found 54% of Kenyan girls reported challenges with accessing menstrual hygiene products. The research also highlighted that one in ten adolescent girls admitted to having transactional sex for pads in Kenya’s Kibera slums.

READ: Victims accuse Solomon Folorunsho of Benin-based IDP camp of abuse

Period poverty: The fault in our blood
Photo credit: Daily Post

In villages where sanitary pads are not available and girls do not have transport – many times unable to afford a bus fare – these taboo issues become so repeated they get nearly normalised.

With most of these women constantly handling dishes or domestic necessities of the family, the likelihood of introducing disease-causing organisms to water, fruits, vegetables or food is high.

Before pads became commonplace, women historically placed in all sorts during menses. Tampons were prevalent at a point, but leaving a tampon in for too long could lead to infections and sometimes cause life-threatening toxic shock syndrome (TSS).

TSS is typically caused by an overgrowth of bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. Menstrual hygiene is so vital that it should be part of the primary school curriculum across Africa. Boys, too, should know about it.

A team of wonderful women called the Numwa Mothers Sewing group sew inexpensive sanitary pads for schools in Zimbabwe. Canada and Australia recently ended tampon tax. Sanitary products in India have become 100% tax-free, while Scotland now offers free sanitary products to low-income families.

For keeping more Tanzanian girls in school with her enlightenment and investment in Menstrual Hygiene, entrepreneur Lucy Odiwa won the World Bank’s first SDGs and Her competition in 2018.

READ: Morocco’s health minister urges doctors to prioritise patient care

Options available to the girl child are; frequently changed tampons, sanitary pads and menstrual cups. Menstrual cups are usually sterilised and reusable. They will no longer have to miss days in the week every month, while classes are on.

Little girls who are yet to start earning livelihood do not have to pay for a natural process which they have little or no control over. We must do better by pushing for progressive policies to end period poverty in Africa. We can do better.

The views expressed in this piece are the author’s own and do not reflect News Central’s editorial stance.

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